|Freight forwarders provide consultancy services and help the shipper with customs-related documentation, booking space with carriers, arranging for other transportation services, warehousing, etc.
|An NVOCC offers ocean carrier services and issues their bill of lading. Their services are related to ocean shipping and they act as the shipper to the carrier and the carrier to the shipper.
|A freight forwarder may not be an NVOCC.
|An NVOCC can also be a freight forwarder.
|Freight forwarders usually don’t own or operate their containers.
|In several cases, an NVOCC owns and operates its containers.
|A shipper or an importer/a customer 'appoints' a freight forwarder to 'act as their agent.'
|A shipper or an importer/ a customer 'employs the services' of an NVOCC as one of their 'service providers'. It is crucial to note that the NVOCC is not an agent in this case but instead provides services as a carrier or those of a shipping line.